Historic Gums & Resins
Glues, Adhesives, & Cements
Historic Pigments & Dyes
Venetian Red (1753) – A hematite mineral pigment. Lighter red pigment mentioned in many early recipes for paints and advertisements for pigments.
Indian Red (1750) – Yellowish-red earth pigments. Varies to reddish brown. From India and Persia.
Turkey Red (1789) – Iron oxide pigment. Similar to Venetian red. Darker and more intense.
Cochineal* (1583) – This red dye comes from a cactus-feeding beetle. Usually from Mexico. It takes 7,000 bodies (abdomens) per pound.
Alkanet Root* (14c) – Purple-red dye and stain from Alkanna tinctoria of the borage family. Used exclusively with linseed oil and especially suited for mahogany. Both stains and chemically changes mahogany. Fugitive and reactive with certain woods.
Red Lead (1732) – Called Minimum. Heated or burnt white lead turns to red lead (lead oxide). Base for mahogany graining with excellent opacity. Poison.
Vermilion 14c) – Called cinnabar. This material is an orange-red mercury sulfate. Used for base coat for mahogany graining and as a base under tortoise shell. Poison.
Rose Pink (1825) – This is a moderate, pink-colored earth pigment.
Pernambuco* (1559) – Derived from Brazilwood and produces a red-purple wood dye. The shavings from the wood are of equal value to the wood itself, which is used for violin bows.
Dragon’s Blood – See Gums & Resins
Red Vitriol* (14c) – Iron sulfate. Reactive. Poison.
Chrome Yellow (1819) – Lead chromate is a brilliant yellow pigment. Poison.
Litharge (14c) – This material is a fused lead monoxide. Light yellowish white. Poison.
Montpelier Yellow (18c) – Yellow oxide of lead. Poison.
Gamboge – See Gums & Resins
Brimstone (12c) – Sulfur. Yellow Stone.
Ivory Black (1634) – Bone black from bone or ivory burned (calcined) in the absence of oxygen. Blue-black.
Lamp Black (1598) – From collections of soot from various carbon-producing (based) fuels.
Frankfort Black (1815) – Imported German black pigment.
Zinc Oxide (1849) – When zinc plates are exposed to acid vapors, the residues are removed and ready for use. Much safer than white lead. Good opacity.
Titanium Dioxide (1796) – Although this pigment was in existence during this early time, it was not readily available until the twentieth century. An excellent white pigment.
Whiting (14c) – Calcium carbonate or chalk. Used as a filler, flattening agent, and paper filler. Mixed with linseed oil to produce putty.
Spanish White (1824) – A very fine white grade of whiting. Used as a gilding base and marbleizing base coat.
Marble Dust (13c) – Powdered white stone marble. Used for gilding and scagliola (marbleizing using real stone materials).
Mica (1777) – Flat thin leaves of crystallized mineral silicates. Iridescent properties.